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Auckland Council The Auckland Plan

Glossary of Māori definitions


Word Description
Advanced economiesEconomies identified as having a high level of gross domestic product per capita, as well as a very significant degree of industrialisation. 
Advanced industriesKey growth industries expected to contribute to Auckland economy, including knowledge intensive services  (e.g scientific research and analysis), high-tech manufacturing, and medium-high tech manufacturing.
Affordable housingTwo complementary measures are used to define affordable housing: the 30 per cent gross income benchmark, measuring whether a household pays no more than 30 per cent of its gross income on housing costs; and the Median Multiple Measure, the ratio between median house price to annual household income.              
Ageing populationThe growing size of the elderly population and its increasing share of the total population.
AmenitiesDesirable or useful features or facilities of a building or place, usually established for the convenience of users, eg. landscaping, public toilets, rubbish bins, lighting, direction signs, fountains.
Amenity The qualities of a place that make it pleasant and attractive for individuals and communities.
AquacultureMarine or land-based farming of aquatic plants and animals.
Asset Management PlansPlans which consolidate data and information about asset types (e.g. roading infrastructure). This could include the condition of current assets, and projected requirements for growth, maintenance and renewals.  
Big dataLarge data sets analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions.
BiodiversityThe variety of life in a particular habitat or ecosystem including the totality of genes and species.
Body corporateAn entity comprising all the unit owners in a unit title development responsible for financial and administrative matters relating to the common property and the unit title development as a whole. 
Bulk infrastructureLarge scale transport, water (water supply, wastewater and stormwater) and social infrastructure which services large areas, such as multiple  suburbs.
Business activitiesCommercial and/or industrial activities.
Business clusteringA group of same, similar or supplementary businesses located closely together.
Business landLand with business zonings where commercial and/or industrial activities take place.
Carbon footprintThe amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere as a result of the activities of a particular individual, organisation, or community.
CentreA focal point for a surrounding neighbourhood or area that contains a mix of activities or functions (e.g. shops, businesses, cafés, libraries, government services, public transport).
CharacterA term used to describe the appearance, qualities and combination of attributes of an area, place, street or building that helps to give that place a distinct identity.
Coastal inundationFlooding of normally dry, low-lying coastal land. This is primarily caused by severe weather events along the coasts, estuaries, and adjoining rivers.
Co-design A framework where partners/stakeholders collaborate in a project. This approach can be applied to a range of areas, such as policy development, infrastructure or service design.
Critical InfrastructureInfrastructure assets and networks that provide essential services to a large number of customers or nationally significant infrastructure sites (such as Auckland Airport). Failure of these infrastructure networks would cause significant economic or social disruption.
Demand managementThe adoption of a variety of tools, such as pricing and the provision of information, to encourage more efficient use of transport and other forms of infrastructure. 
Demographic changesChanges to the size, composition or structure of the population.
Development capacityThe quantity of development, such as housing or business, that can be undertaken on an area of land, taking into account relevant planning provisions and the availability of infrastructure.
Digital infrastructureThe infrastructure required to promote the sharing and consumption of digital data.
Digital literacyThe ability to confidently find, evaluate, use and create digital content in meaningful ways to participate in educational, cultural, social and economic activities.
Distributed energy resourcesThe transfer of electricity between the transmission network and end users through the local network.
Elite soilsThis land is the most highly versatile and productive land in Auckland.  It is well drained, friable, and has well structured soils, flat or gently undulating land, and is capable of continuous cultivation.  Land classified as Land Use Capability Class 1 (LUC1).
Existing urban areaThe area of Auckland with live urban zoning at 2017, including the rural towns (and excluding live zoned future urban areas).
Food milesFood miles is a term which refers to the distance food is transported from the time of its production until it reaches the consumer.
Fossil fuelsA natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Freshwater environmentBeds, banks, margins, flood plains and waters of rivers and natural lakes and wetlands, and groundwater systems together with their natural functioning and interconnections.
Future urban areasAreas identified for urban development in the Future Urban Land Supply Strategy 2017.
Governance structuresThe way in which local government organises itself to work for and on behalf of its communities including the structures and processes that enable decision-making.
Green infrastructureNatural and engineered ecological systems which integrate with the built environment to provide the widest possible range of ecological, community and infrastructure services.
Green technologyTechnology intended to mitigate or reverse the effects of human activity on the environment.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissionsGases emitted to the atmosphere which contribute to the greenhouse gas effect, in which more than the normal amount of atmospheric heat is retained in the atmosphere. 
These emissions include water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, halocarbons and other chlorine and bromine-containing substances
GreenwaysConnected pathways separated from roads that provide for safe walking, cycling and recreation. They provide access to places such as schools, libraries, shopping, and public transport nodes, and have environmental benefits.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)The monetary value of all goods and services produced within a nation's geographic borders over a specified period of time.
HapūKinship group, clan, tribe, subtribe.  Section of a large kinship group and the primary political unit in traditional Māori society.
Hau kāingaLocal people of a marae or area.
Housing stressThe stress that a household experiences when it must pay more for housing than what is considered affordable.
Hui To assemble or meet, and a gathering or meeting.
Inclusive growthAn approach to growth and development where the benefits are shared broadly.
Industrial ActivitiesManufacturing, construction, wholesale trade, transport and storage sectors of the economy. These activities typically require large sites.
InfrastructureThe structures, systems and facilities that support daily life such as water supply, roads and communications.
Infrastructure The structures, systems and facilities that support daily life such as water supply, roads and communications.
Innovation HubFacilitates the interaction between business, industry, research agencies and the public sector to turn an idea into a process, product or service on the market.
Intergenerational wealthCultural, social, and economic wealth transfered from one generation to the next.
Intrinsic valueValues of the environment and cultural heritage in their own right, as distinct from the benefits people obtain from them.
IwiA number of hapū related through a common ancestor.
Iwi authorities Mandated organisations representing the interests of iwi and/or hapū.
Iwi management plans Documents prepared by iwi that councils must consider when developing or amending Resource Management Act plans.
KaimoanaSea food.
Kaitiaki Trustee, custodian, guardian.
Kaitiakitanga Guardianship, stewardship, trusteeship.
Kaumātua Elderly man, elderly woman.  A person of status within the whānau, hapū, iwi.
Kaupapa topic, issue.
Kaupapa Māori Maori approach or customary practice which incorporates the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values of Maori society.
Kōhanga reo Māori language preschool.
Live zoneAn operative urban zone (e.g. residential, business or open space) which specifies development activities and rules.
Long-term PlanA ten-year plan prepared under the Local Government Act 2002 containing programmes for council's priorities, activities, operating and capital expenditure. Incorporates a 30 year Infrastructure Strategy that provides a long-term view of investment needed in council infrastructure.
Low carbon economyAn economy that is based on the need to reduce the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Mahinga kai Food-gathering place (rivers, bush, sea, gardens etc).
Mana Authority, status, prestige.
Mana whenuaThe people of the land who have mana or customary authority; their historical, cultural and genealogical heritage are attached to the land and sea.
Manaaki Generosity; support, provide hospitality and care of others.
Manaakitanga The process of showing respect, hospitality, generosity and care for others.
Manuhiri Visitor, guest.
Māori Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand. In this plan it incorporates mana whenua and mataawaka.
Māori centric-models Models of business, learning, health and other forms of practice that may be developed with Māori values, tikanga Māori and mātauranga Māori as foundational to the delivery of the model.
Marae[thought there was a query about this one yesterday?] Courtyard - the open area in front of the wharenui, where formal greetings and discussions take place.  Used often to include the complex of buildings and spaces around the marae.
Mataawaka Māori who live in Auckland and are not within a mana whenua group.
Mātauranga Māori knowledge, expertise.
Maunga Mountain, mount or peak. Also refers to volcanic cones.
Mauri Life principle, life force, vital essence. The essential quality and vitality of a being or entity.
Mixed-use developmentA mixture of activities such as residential, business, retail, or hospitality that occupy space within the same building or within the same block or area (e.g. an apartment building with shops, cafés and offices on the lower floors, or a town centre with these activities).
MoanaSea, ocean, large lake.
Natural carbon assetsNatural features, e.g. wetlands and shrublands, that actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process called carbon sequestration.
Natural heritageIndigenous flora and fauna, terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems and habitats, landscapes, landforms, geological features, soils and the natural character of the coastline.
Natural resource managementManagement of natural and physical resources such as land, air and water.
NodesMajor urban hubs based around significant centres and their surrounding employment and high density residential areas servicing large, sub-regional catchments. 
Papakāinga Settlement or village on communal Māori land. 
Place-based initiativesAn approach that targets an entire community and aims to address issues that exist at the neighbourhood level.
PlacemakingThe collaborative and integrated process of planning, designing and building places, so that they are successful, enduring and attractive for people.
PortageRefers to the practice of carrying watercraft or cargo over land to avoid river obstacles, or between two bodies of water. A place where this carrying occurs is also called a portage.
Pōwhiri Invitation, formal Māori welcome ceremony.
PrefabricationHousing that has components made and/or assembled in one location before being transported to a final building site.
Prime soilsLand with slight to moderate physical limitations for arable use. Factors contributing to this classification are readily available water, favourable climate, favourable topography, good drainage, and versatile soils easily adapted to a wide range of agricultural uses. Land identified as land use capability classes two and three (LUC2, LUC3).
ProductivityA measure of how well an organisation uses its resources (inputs, such as labour and capital) to produce goods and services (outputs) and is typically expressed as a ratio of outputs to inputs. As such, productivity is a measure of efficiency.
Quadruple bottom lineA way of assessing how well an organisation or business performs economically, environmentally, socially and culturally.
Rainbow communitiesBroad umbrella term that covers a diversity of sexual orientations, as well as gender and sex identities.
Rangatahi Youth, younger generation.
Rangatira ki te rangatira Chief to chief.
Rangatiratanga Authority made evident through a person's chiefly deeds towards others in the interest of hapū and iwi.
Rapid Transit Network (RTN)Fast, high-frequency public transport such as rail services and busways that are physically separate from the general road network and unaffected by road congestion.
Real-time road user pricingA dynamic pricing system that can vary the price of travel by time and location depending on the level of congestion.
Receiving environments
The environment upon which a proposed activity might have effects.
RunoffWater flows resulting from rain water that is not absorbed by permeable surfaces or falls on impermeable surfaces.
Rural ProductionPrimary production activities which have a functional need for a rural location, such as pastoral and dairy farming, horticulture, forestry and mineral extraction.
Rural productivityThe capacity of the region for rural production.
Satellite townA rural town which has the potential to function semi-independently from the main urban area, providing a full range of services and employment opportunities to the wider rural area. Applies to the towns of Pukekohe and Warkworth.
SedimentTiny fragments of organic or inorganic matter suspended in water. Sediment is a pollutant caused by erosion and earth works.
Sense of placeA person's or community's appreciation of the special qualities of their neighbourhood, city or environment that are different from other places.
Sensitive land usesLand uses (such as housing and schools) that are sensitive to the effects of higher impact activities, e.g. in rural areas noise, odour or dust from farming, quarries or landfills.
Shared spacesStreet spaces in which the traditional segregation between cars, pedestrians and cyclists is minimised, usually through the customisation of street markings and the removal of features such as raised kerbs and footpaths.
Significant landscapesLandscapes that are considered to be important for environmental, ecological or cultural reasons, for example the Āwhitu Peninsula, the Ōtuataua stone fields and the Franklin volcanic fields.
Social and community innovationInnovation that originates from individuals or groups in local communities.
Social cohesionThe willingness of members of society to cooperate with each other in order to survive and prosper.
Social exclusionExclusion from the social system and its rights and privileges.
Social housingHousing provided by government agencies or non-profit organisations to people on low or no incomes.
Social infrastructureThe system of services, networks and facilities/assets that support people and communities.  It comprises a broad spectrum of community assets and may be:
• Provided by the public sector, the private sector or non-governmental organisations
• Open space or supporting services and activities
• Physical facilities and the people involved in the delivery of services or the actual services themselves
• Operating at the local, sub-regional or regional level.
Social mobilityShifting from one social status to another, commonly to a status that is either higher or lower. It refers both to the ability of individuals to change status over time, and for individuals to have a different status to that of their family.
Socio-economic disparityIn general terms, a person's social and economic position in relation to others, based on income, education and occupation.
Spatial inequalities Unequal distribution of resources and services based on location.
Spatial planningA form of planning for cities, regions or countries that seeks to provide long-term direction for development and the achievement of social, economic and environmental well-being.
Stationary energyStationary energy includes fuel consumption for electricity generation, fuels consumed in the manufacturing, construction and commercial sectors, and other sources like domestic heating.
Stormwater infrastructureInfrastructure intended to manage stormwater, including pipes, drains, streams and channels.
Strategic infrastructure networksLarge scale water or transport infrastructure that has a significant influence on the location, timing and scale of growth.
Strengths-based modelsApproaches that concentrate on the inherent strengths of individuals, families, groups and organisations to aid recovery and empowerment.
Structural discriminationWhen an entire network of rules and practices disadvantages less empowered groups while at the same time serving to advantage the dominant group.
Structure planA plan establishing the spatial development pattern of land use, transport and services for a defined area, informed by consideration  of opportunities and constraints.
Sustainable procurementProcurement that meets organisational objectives while having the least negative and most positive impact on social, economic, environmental, social and cultural well-being.
SwaleA low tract of land, especially one that is moist or marshy. Artificial swales are often designed to manage water runoff, filter pollutants, and increase rainwater infiltration.
Taiao​Natural resources
Tāmaki Makaurau The Māori name for Auckland.  Translates to Tāmaki desired by many.
Tamariki Children.
Tangata whenua Indigenous people of the land.
Taonga Treasure, anything prized - applied to anything considered to be of value including socially or culturally valuable objects, resources, phenomenon, ideas and techniques.
Taonga tuku iho A treasure passed down through the generations, either tangible (e.g. whenua) or intangible (e.g. Te Reo Māori).
Taurahere Māori residing outside of their ancestral lands. Used in this plan to describe marae associated with hapū or iwi whose tribal connections are from outside of Auckland.
Te Tiriti o Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi which is the document upon which the British and Māori agreed to found a nation state and build a government.
Tertiary qualificationsAny post-secondary qualification including certificates, diplomas, and bachelor's degrees gained through tertiary study in a private training establishment, polytechnic, wananga, university or in workplace training.
Tikanga Correct procedure, custom, lore, method, way, plan, practice, convention, protocol. The customary system of values and practices that have developed over time and are deeply embedded in the social context.
Tino RangatiratangaSelf-determination, autonomy, self-government.
Transport corridorsStrategic and arterial road, bus and rail alignments, and adjoining land uses.
Transport infrastructureThe fixed infrastructure on and through which people, vehicles and goods move around Auckland including roads, rail lines, cycleways, footpaths, bridges, train stations, busways, busway stations, ferry wharves, and bus shelters.
TūpunaAncestor(s), grandparent(s).
​Tūrangawaewae​Ancestral standing place.
Unitary PlanThe Unitary Plan is Auckland Council's regulatory land-use planning document and prepared under the Resource Management Act 1991. The Unitary Plan replaces the existing district and some regional plans from the former city, district and regional councils. It contains guidance and rules about how land can be developed and how resources can be used.
UpcycleReuse (discarded objects or material) in such a way as to create a product of higher quality or value than the original.
Urban forestsAuckland's urban ngahere (forest) is defined as the network of all trees, other vegetation and green roofs – both native and naturalised – in existing and future urban areas.
Vulnerable communitiesCommunities with a limited capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a major negative event.
Waahi tapuSacred place, sacred site - a place subject to long-term ritual restrictions on access or use, e.g. a burial ground, a battle site or a place where tapu objects were placed.
Water-sensitive designDesign of developments that focuses on lowering impacts on water and water-based environments.
WatershedArea of land in which rainfall drains toward a common stream, river, lake, or estuary.
Whakapapa Genealogy, lineage, descent.
Whānau Extended family, family group, a familiar term of address to a number of people. 
Also the primary economic unit of traditional Māori society.
WhanaungatangaRelationship, kinship, sense of family connection.
A relationship through shared experiences and working together which provides people with a sense of belonging.
Whenua Land, country, earth, ground.
Wrap-around support servicesA holistic integrated set of social services to support people most in need.
Zero WasteA concept that encourages the imitation of sustainable natural cycles where all discarded materials are designed to become resources for other uses.