We may also need to design our buildings and infrastructure differently.
Other opportunities to embed climate change resilience include the use of
green infrastructure and adapting to a changing water future.
Because of transport's contribution to GHG emissions,
transforming how we travel is one of the key mechanisms to reduce the overall carbon footprint.
In addition, improving energy efficiency and accelerating the shift to renewable energy resources will help to address the stationary energy component of Auckland's emissions profile.
Whatever measures we take to reduce GHG emissions, some impacts are unavoidable due to emissions already in the atmosphere.
We therefore need to prepare, build understanding and increase resilience across our environment, economy and communities.
As the effects of climate change are still uncertain and subject to change over time, it will be necessary to monitor climate change impacts and projections and to gather local environmental data.
This will enable us to identify the most appropriate climate change responses in relation to the risks, costs and benefits involved, and to adapt plans as more information becomes available.
Low carbon economy
Evidence and economic modelling indicate that shifting to a low carbon economy – an economy which reduces the causes and effects of climate change – has numerous benefits.
There are many short-term challenges associated with this shift, yet it also has the potential to deliver long-term, resilient economic growth and increased productivity.
Many components of a low carbon economy – more sustainable and active transport choices, cleaner energy, greater public green space provision, and a higher-quality and safer built environment – also deliver improved economic and social wellbeing outcomes.
A low carbon economy reduces energy insecurity and potential increases in the cost of power. This is particularly important since many low-income families spend a disproportionate percentage of income on energy.
There are also well-documented air quality and health costs associated with the burning of fossil fuels.
What the shift to a low carbon economy means for jobs is not certain.
Some sectors may see job losses and affected workers may need training and new skills. Some new industries will be created. Others will survive and do better.
Overall, the investment in more resilient infrastructure is almost certain to drive both job creation and growth in our gross domestic product as well as stimulate growth and innovation throughout the economy.
The concept of a circular economy is one that focuses on restoring and recapturing value within a product's lifecycle.
A circular economy finds new ways to reduce waste. It places more emphasis on building linkages between businesses delivering better outcomes for people and planet as well as profit for businesses.
A circular economy can also be defined partly by what it is not – it's not an inefficient and wasteful linear economy that simply extracts, consumes, and disposes.
Like any economy, a circular economy can exist at any scale, starting locally and expanding into organisational supply chains and the global economy. True circularity maintains strong local roots to deliver enduring local benefits and value.
Economic and environmental opportunities from creating a more circular economy are clear and enticing. The globally-recognised Club of Rome found that countries from France to Finland can simultaneously grow jobs and reduce carbon emissions.
For instance, Finland could cut up to 70 per cent of its carbon emissions, France could gain half a million jobs, and Sweden could drop emissions by two thirds while adding jobs at 3 per cent of the labour force.
Read more on the Club of Rome website.